Coronavirus COVID-19 What Is It, Why and Where Are We Going?

We all know that there are no known drugs against Coronavirus COVID-19 yet.. So, what will you depend on?

Is COVID -19 Almighty or Your Own Immune System Still Holds the Key for Health or Sickness? Yes, your immune system is still the best warrior for your protection against infections of any kind.

I have many years of experience in the research and development of cosmetics & perfumery products and ingredients, and I have a good understanding of microbiology and the human immune system.

Human VIROME (Viruses Living Inside)

Do you know how many viruses are already living inside the human body right now? Human virome is the collection of  viruses that are found in or on humans, including both eukaryotic and prokaryotic viruses (Raghavendra P. et al., 2018 Advances in Cell and Molecular Diagnostics). There are approximately 6 Trillion Human Cells, 60 Trillion Bacteria, and a whopping 300 to 380 trillion viruses living inside the human body.

Credit: Sigrid Knmeyer and Cesar Arze

What is Coronavirus COVID-19?

Coronaviruses (CoVs) cause infections in birds and mammals, but in the last few decades, we have seen they are capable of infecting humans as well.

Though the viruses are genetically distinct, all coronaviruses are enveloped viruses and therefore possess a lipid bilayer that protects the viral genetic material. Viruses do not have their own cellular machinery. A virus infects its host by attaching to the host cell and penetrating the cell membrane. This way, the virus’s genetic code is injected into the host cell.

Coronavirus has a genetic code with four major structural proteins: the spike (S) protein, nucleocapsid (N) protein, membrane (M) protein, and the envelope (E) protein (Schoeman,D., Fielding, B.C., 2019, Virology J 16).  This enveloped virus has surface glycoproteins that mediate attachment and fusion with the target cell membrane.

COVID-19 and the Vaccine

The glycoproteins of viruses constitute the first encounter with the host cell, and are the exposed target for the immune system attack; hence viruses have evolved to hide the features that would make them more susceptible to human immune antibody neutralization.

Vaccine development against enveloped viruses like Coronavirus COVID-19 mostly focuses on targeting the envelope glycoproteins primarily because they are solely responsible for neutralizing antibodies produced by the immune system.   “Also, it has been demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) uses the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. A TMPRSS2 inhibitor approved for clinical use blocked entry and might constitute a treatment option” (Hoffmann et al., 2020, Cell 181, 1–10).

The Role of Your Immune System

Once inside the cell (I mean cytoplasmic compartment), the immune system cannot detect the viral protein and therefore do not know that the host cell has been infected. To overcome this, cells use a system that allows them to show other cells what is inside them – they use molecules called class I major histocompatibility complex proteins (or MHC class I, for short) to display pieces of protein from inside the cell upon the cell surface. If the cell is infected with a virus, these pieces of peptide will include fragments of proteins made by the virus.

Human immune cells, known as leukocytes, or white blood cells, kill by triggering a “respiratory release” which delivers highly reactive antimicrobial molecules, including hydrogen peroxide produced by the body itself. Hydrogen peroxide is produced in the human thyroid, gut, and lungs. Hydrogen Peroxide is the body’s best defense system.

Did You Know

  1. A hydrogen peroxide-based cleanup product that was originally developed to neutralize biological and chemical warfare agents, but was sent to at least six different hospitals around China, both inside and outside Hubei province. The product kills viruses on hard surfaces as well as textiles for up to eight hours before it degrades into non-potable water. Source : https://www.businessinsider.com
  2. Plants have developed a variety of defense mechanisms to tackle virus attacks. Endogenous plant proteins can function as virus suppressors. Griffithsin (GRFT), an algae-derived lectin, is one of the most potent viral entry inhibitors discovered to date. It is currently being developed as a microbicide with broad-spectrum activity against several enveloped viruses (Lusvarghi et al., 2016, Viruses 8, 296).

WHY & Where to with COVID-19?

In this era of global pandemics, it’s worth remembering its roots, which are humanity’s relationship with nature. For far too long, there has been a lack of respect for (and research into) wildlife and the natural world. The illicit wildlife trade and wildlife health have been hidden, under-reported and often ignored.  Environmental pollution, deforestation, encroachment into protected wild areas, unsustainable farming, unregulated consumption of wild meat and the illegal wildlife trade, all these will continue to contribute to the spread of more pandemics.

Credit: Getty Images

In this time of uncertainty, we at Belle’Botanique here in Adelaide want to encourage you to be thinking positively about how to support your family, friends and colleagues during these uncertain times. The world may seem to be rapidly changing but the importance to support each other is still the same.

And this might be the time to reconnect with aromas of  natural world, try our Discovery Collection’.We at Belle’Botanique developed the world’s first allergen-free perfumes, we knew/know the potential dangers (reported and peer-reviewed) of synthetic aroma chemicals and their impact on human health and the environment.

Let’s be patient, vigilant and supportive of the efforts and actions, which are taken by our government against the spread of COVID-19.

Here is a good video to watch:

Scientific Approach to Avoid Coronavirus COVID-19

https://youtu.be/I0Ae0mjMljs

Disclaimer: The views, information, and opinion expressed in this article/blog post are of the author (Manoj (Josh) Jain) and do not represent any official policy, government policy, medical organization and by no means can be taken as medical advice.